The first spawn in shells and also live in the shells as a home all their lives. They hide, sleep, spawn and raise the fry in these shells. The most common type is Neolamprologus multifasiatus.
Mouth Brooders do as they say and look after the babies in their mouths like the Malawi’s do. They basically spawn in mid water or near the substrate and then the female takes the eggs in her mouth and then holds them in there for 2-4 weeks depending on the species, during this period the female wont eat anything. After the female has released the young they are left to fend for themselves, they are usually spat into rock crevices to give them the best possible start and if there is a brooding female of a rock spawning type them they are spat there as the other females presence will put off predators. Most of these are midwater shoaling fish IME.
Cave/rock spawners and substrate spawners are very similar in behaviour apart from that one lays eggs on rocks and the other on the substrate. Once the babies hatch they stay together feeding on their egg sacs for a few days (depending on species) and after that the parents look after the babies and try to keep them all in one place as they start to swim about a lot more, the parents look after them until they are big enough to look after themselves.
Tanganyikan tanks should contain coral sand as a substrate and tend to have ocean rock as decoration but can contain a few hardy plants like anubis, java fern and java moss etc. The temperature should be at 24-25C and the tank should be well filtered as they are very sensitive to ammonia and nitrite.
we are in rift lake territory with our water here already - tap water pH is 7.8 and hard (CaCO3 320 ppm; gH 22.4) - so I was thinking I wouldnt need the substrate to affect it, I just thought black might be nice or i will risk not seeing my little beige fish among their beige shells and beige sand ... i am a bit worried about nitrates with no plants though
it's just i am really crap with plants even in my big tank which has better light and laterite. no harm in trying i suppose! have you got anything under the sand? would like to get a few rocks too for decor but a bit worried about balancing them